At present, the existence of really natural Water has become almost a myth. It is essential to treat the water to purify it; otherwise, it would generate important epidemics that would increase the population’s risk of mortality. But nevertheless; to treat the water it is necessary to manipulate it and in these processes, it is not free of contamination; that is to say, that any type of treatment could also have harmful effects on health. (1), (7).

According to statistical estimates, more than one billion inhabitants in the world do not have access to the supply of water suitable for consumption and another 1.7 billion lack adequate sanitation. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) estimates that by 2027, approximately one- third of the world’s population will suffer a serious shortage of drinking water. To the water shortage is added its pollution by urbanization, agriculture, tourism, industrial development, wastewater discharges, other waste, etc. The lacks of drinking water, and the poor sanitary system, cause 75% of diseases in undeveloped countries. Approximately 80% of water pollution and eutrophication is due to the waste of substances from the industrial sector: mining (suspended solids, heavy metals, organic matter, cyanides.); fertilizers; Textile and tannery (Chromium, tannins, surfactants, sulfides, dyes, fats, organic solvents, pesticides, etc.).

Healthy and easily accessible water are important for public health, whether it is used for drinking, for domestic use, for food production or for recreational purposes, it must be free of any organism, mineral and organic substance that can cause disease (1).


Natural sources. Depending on the land that crosses the water, it may contain components of natural origin from contact with the atmosphere and the soil (eg mineral salts, calcium, magnesium, iron, etc.). Although they can be harmful to health, in general they are substances that can be easily identified and eliminated. (7) (5).

Artificial sources. Produced as a result of human activities. Industrial development has caused the presence of certain components that are dangerous for the environment and for organisms and difficult to eliminate.


The most commonly used disinfectants are: chlorine gas (Cl2), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 12.5% ​​available chlorine), calcium hypochlorite (Ca (OCl) 2, 70% available chlorine), chloramines, chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) and ozone (O3).

Each of the disinfectants used has its advantages and disadvantages depending on its cost, efficiency, stability, the ease with which it is applied, and the formation of disinfection byproducts.


In the early 1900s, the chlorination of drinking water supplies in developed nations began, followed by a drastic reduction in epidemics of bacterial diseases, virtually eliminating typhoid and cholera. However, in developing countries, these diseases spread through water continue to occur. In addition to providing protection against viral and bacterial pathogens, chlorine-based disinfectants also improve the aesthetics of water, which can be damaged by algae and rotten vegetation (color, taste and smell). (6).

 The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that the average taste and odor threshold concentration of residual chlorine increases from 0.075 ppm to 0.450 ppm when the pH increases from 5.0 to 9.0. At pH 7.0 the average threshold was 0.156 ppm with a variation range of 0.02-0.29 ppm; however, when chlorine is combined with phenolic substances and other organic compounds, the unpleasant taste and odors can be significantly exacerbated.

Chlorine helps control the bacterium to grow back, providing a residual level of disinfectant in the distribution system. In many areas, both in developed and developing countries, these long pipe systems have not been replaced or re-coated, which often causes rust, scales, biofilm formation, leaks and cracks. As well as intentional emptying with a siphon- which can lead to recontamination events that compromise water quality.


 The main concerns that exist about SPDs include:

1. Damage in reproductive functions, that is, decreased fertility, poor birth;

2. Injury to fetal development within the uterus and immediately after delivery and;

3. Cancer development.

During the last decade, numerous studies were carried out to evaluate the toxicity of SPDs. These studies included both human and animal subjects. In 1998 the perceived notion was that exposure to chlorinated water could not be definitively linked to adverse effects on reproduction or development, at the levels determined for treated water. US health agencies, including the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), supported this conclusion. More recent studies have shown moderate associations between SPDs and low birth weight, neural tube defects, and spontaneous abortions. (2), (3).


In general, the treatment of water so that it is suitable for human consumption goes through the following processes:

Filtration It consists of passing the water through porous material to remove impurities in suspension and those that are in a colloidal state. This porous material is part of the so-called filters. In the case of the carbon filter, this eliminates chlorine and improves the taste of water.

Disinfection to destroy the germs that water may contain or retain, the process called disinfection is used, which consists of applying bactericidal substances to the water. Various methods are practiced, among them are chlorination, ultraviolet rays, and ozone.

Osmosis It is a procedure by which the water is passed through some membranes where all its minerals are removed, very soft water and a soft taste of great acceptance for the consumer is produced.


One of the materials used in industry and in the treatment of water and other liquid products is activated carbon. To achieve this, various organic materials have to be subjected to a series of chemical operations and processes to give it a finish in which the adsorption capacity is possible during the use given. The fundamental property of activated carbons is to adsorb fine particles as well as odors that you want to eliminate in a solution. For this particularity, activated carbon is used in many industries especially in the chemical physical treatment of wastewater, water purification, as well as in air purification, use in medicine against poisoning, use in mining, and many others Applications. (6).

Activated carbon. They are materials whose main component is amorphous carbon, they are produced from different materials such as firewood or sawdust, nutshells, coconut and fruit bones, or they are caused by the transformation of fossil vegetables accumulated at the bottom of swampy areas. The activation processes they undergo provide them with a large surface area.

Activation is the slow oxidation process, which consists in “multiplying” the number of pores of coal resulting in an extremely porous (microscopic) structure of large surface area available to carry out the adsorption process.

The important properties of an activated carbon are: the surface area, the porosity and the pore size distribution, since the micropores (size less than 2 nm) give it the high surface area and retention capacity of compounds more volatile than water, such as odors, flavors and many solvents, while mesopores (size between 2 and 50 nm) and macropores (size greater than 50 nm), are necessary to retain intermediate and large molecules, such as intense colors or substances humic, humic and fulvic acids that are generated when the organic matter decomposes and to favor the access and rapid diffusion of the molecules on the inner surface of the solid.(6).

In our case, the raw material chosen for its production is the hard or endocarp shell of the coconut (Cocos nucifera species). One of the objectives of the use of activated carbon from coconut shell is its versatility in use, it is the most efficient because of its porosity.

In addition, to obtain a wide distribution of pores, the activated carbon obtained from the coconut shell is more hard and resistant, compared to that obtained from wood. Another advantage offered by activated carbons obtained from organic materials, in relation to those obtained from inorganic materials, is that in the former, the percentage of ashes is lower.

The chemical composition of active carbon is approximately 75-80% carbon, 5-10% ash, 60% oxygen and 0.5% hydrogen. It has a microcrystalline structure that normally results in a well-determined pore size distribution.

Adsorption with activated carbon consists of removing soluble substances from water by filtering through a bed of this material, making the oligominerals pass through the micropores, separating and retaining the heaviest compounds on the inner surface of the granules . This process retains non-polar substances such as mineral oil, aromatic polyhydrocarbons, chlorine and derivatives, halogenated substances such as 1, Br, Cl, H, F, substances that generate bad odors and tastes in water, yeasts, etc. (4),(6).

Combine this Superior Activated Carbon with an Exclusive Vitamin C Ceramic Block Technology and you have a winning combination that makes a top quality Shower filter.

Then use a double-filter system using this core combination of a Superior Activated Carbon and Vitamin C Ceramic Block Technology with a Polymer PP Cotton Filter and you have the best shower filter available.

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